Penguin Waddling

Their short legs will cause quicker tilting when they shift their weight. They have to put all their weight on one leg. Their spread toes allow them to maintain lateral balance. If they slip and fall on ice, it is no problem. Since they are short, there is less acceleration and less impact.

Chicken Femur

Chickens are dinosaurs. They share similar hip/pelvis structures with dinosaurs. They evolved to be able to make quick turns. However, it is not a true ‘ball-and-socket’ joint. Wing motions are necessary for acute turns.


They are known to be energy-efficient runners. There is no abrupt transition for every creature between walking and running b/o ‘wheel-like’ locomotion. However, ostriches with skinny legs can lift their legs with less energy at higher speeds b/o stronger bouncing through theirs tendons/muscle springs.      


(photo courtesy of Dr. SJ Park) Flamingos put weight onto one leg to compact the muddy feeding ground to secure balance. They lock their ankles for stiffness and to save energy, like a balancing stick.